Monday, October 31, 2011

BIHAR POLICE USES FOOTBALL TO HELP CHILDREN


An enterprising woman constable of Bihar Police has been luring extremely poor children, including slum-dwellers and street children, to soccer to give them new lives.

Ranjita Singh, 27, currently posted with the training cell of Munger district police, has helped six children she trained to represent Bihar in the under-13 national championships and three others to make it to Sports Authority of India (SAI) hostel at Kishanganj, Bihar.

"I have been coaching football to 65 youngsters, including one girl, from extremely poor families to help them represent the state and the country in various tournaments," Ranjita said.

What is remarkable about her protégés is their family background.

"Four of the six players who represented Bihar are the sons of sweepers with the Homeguards or the Railways while the two others are the sons of a daily-wage labourer and a milk vendor," she said.

Ranjita, from Bhojpur's Dhandiha village, said it had become her mission to harness the sporting talent of these children roaming the streets of Munger town.

"I saw about a dozen young boys loitering around aimlessly in the streets. Most were addicted either to drugs or gutkha. I casually invited them to play soccer with me at a local playground one morning… I started practising soccer with them every day and discovered that some of them were very gifted players," Ranjita said.

When the boys started attending her morning practice sessions regularly, she dropped a bombshell.

"I told them that I would not practice with them anymore because of their addictions and other bad habits," she said.

This brought about a sea change in their behaviour and they promised to give up all their bad habits to play football with her. Ranjita, with the help of her colleague Sushma and a physical training instructor Chandan, got them admitted to different schools and even got their tuition fee waived.

"We have a big ground in Munger but we did not have other infrastructure such as footballs, jerseys and boots for the players. This created hurdles in sending our players for an inter-district selection camp being held at Hajipur last year," she said.

Fortunately, the then SP M. Sunil Nayak heard about her mission and donated the players' uniforms, balls and boots to help them.

"This enabled our boys to go there and six of them qualified for Bihar's team that played in the national championships," Ranjita explained.

Ranjita's achievements caught the attention of Bihar's DGP Abhayanand who announced a cash award of Rs 5,000 for her and also asked the SP to relieve her from her regular duty in the police department.

"I am so obliged that the DGP has reposed trust in a constable such as me. I will try my level best to live up to his expectations," she said.

Ranjita too had made it to the Indian women's soccer team after excelling at the national championships in which she represented Bihar.

"I went to Singapore to play in an international championship organised by the Football Association of Singapore (FAS) in 2003," she claimed.

"I initially excelled in track and field events and even lived at the SAI hostel in Ranchi but I was later drawn towards soccer. I started by playing with the boys and was selected for the Bihar and the India teams. The state government twice felicitated me for my performances," she added.

She suffered from a nagging knee problem which affected her career as a player.

Her father was a mechanic in the state public health and engineering department and her family of seven faced financial problems following his retirement.

"I wanted to join the National Institute of Sports but desperately needed a job. So I finally became a constable in 2008," she said.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

मुंगेर कोर्ट में कैदियों ने की बमबारी, एक फरार


पुलिस कस्टडी में कोर्ट में पेश होने वाले कैदियों ने बमबारी कर यह साबित कर दिया है कि जेल के अंदर हो या बाहर मुंगेर के अपराधी हर खौफनाक साजिश को अंजाम देना जानते हैं. मुंगेर की अदालत में दिन दहाड़े हुई बमबारी और एक कैदी के फरार हो जाने से बिहार पुलिस और प्रशासन के सारे दावों को पोल खोल गई है. अब देखना यह है कि इस घटना में शामिल लापरवाह पुलिस वालों को क्या सज़ा मिलती है.
ये घटना कुछ ऐसी है कि हत्या के एक मामले में मुंगेर जेल में बंद चार कैदियों को पेशी के लिए न्यायालय लाया गया था. पेशी के बाद सभी को वापस ले जाने की कार्रवाई शुरु हुई. कैदियों को जेल ले जाने के लिए पुलिस की गाड़ी पर सवार किया जा रहा था तभी कैदियों ने एक के बाद एक चार बम विस्फोट किए. पुलिस के मुताबिक बम चलाने वाले कैदियों में डैनी और अमित था. योजना के मुताबिक पुलिस पर बमबारी कर ये कैदी भागने लगे.
कैदियों ने तो अपनी तरफ से भागने की फुलप्रूफ तैयारी की थी लेकिन उनसे एक चूक हो गई. उन्हें यह पता नहीं था कि वे जहां से भाग रहे हैं वहां सैप के जवान भी तैनात हैं. बमबारी के बाद जैसे ही अफरा तफरी मची वैसे ही सैप के जवानों ने पोजीशन ले लिया और कैदियों पर गोलियां चलाई. इस कार्रवाई में डैनी यादव की मौत हो गयी जबकि एक अन्य कैदी अमित मंडल को पुलिस ने पकड़ लिया. लेकिन तीसरा कैदी सजीत यादव वहां से भागने में कामयाब रहा. चौथा कैदी सोनू राम जवाबी कार्रवाई से सहम गया और उसने भागने की कोशिश नहीं की वह वहीं खड़ा रहा.

डैनी मुंगेर के लाल दरवाजे का निवासी था और वह एक हत्या के मामले का आरोपी था. वह एक साल से जेल में बंद था. पुलिस को चकमा देकर फरार होने वाला कैदी सुजीत यादव भी उसी मुहल्ले का रहने वाला है. वह हत्या के मामलों में आरोपी है और पिछले दो वष्रो से जेल में बंद था. अमित मंडल जमालपुर का रहने वाला है और वह करीब आधा दर्जन मामलों में आरोपी है.

मुंगरे की इस घटना का स्क्रिप्ट किसी बालीवुड फिल्म से कम नहीं है. मुजरिम खतरनाक थे, हत्या जैसे मामले में जेल के अंदर थे. लेकिन जिस तरह से इस घटना को अंजाम दिया गया उससे तो यही लगता है कि कैदियों ने भागने का पूरा प्लान जेल के अंदर ही बना लिया था. इस प्लानिंग में बाहर के लोग भी शामिल थे. घटना को देखते हुए इस बात से भी इनकार नहीं किया जा सकता है कि कुछ पुलिसवाले भी इनकी साजिश में शामिल हो. इस घटना से जुड़े कई सवाल हैं. इन कैदियों के पास इतने सारे बम कहां से आए. क्या किसी ने जेल के अंदर उन्हें बम पहुंचाया? जिसे वो पेशी के दिन अपने साथ लेकर आए थे. या किसी ने पेशी के दौरान पुलिस कस्टडी में पुलिस के मौजदगी के बीच उन्हें बमों की सप्लाई की?

सोचने वाली बात यह है कि अगर ये कैदी जेल से पुलिस की निगरानी में बाहर निकले तो जेल से बाहर निकलते वक्त उनकी चेकिंग हुई होगी. अगर चेकिंग नहीं हुई तो यह तो जेल में तैनात पुलिसवालों की लापरवाही है. अगर चेकिंग हुई तो इसका मतलब यह है कि पुलिस कस्टडी में ही कोर्ट परिसर में किसी ने उन्हें बम दिया होगा. फिर यह सवाल उठता है कि पुलिस कस्टडी में उनसे कौन मिला? बम किसने दिया? पुलिस वालों ने इतने खतरनाक अपराधी को किसी आनजान आदमी से इन्हें मिलने क्यों दिया? अगर पुलिस वालों ने किसी को उन कैदियों से मिलने दिया तो इसका मतलब यह है कि इस घटना के लिये ये पुलिस वाले भी जिम्मेदार हैं.

जो लोग मुंगेर को अच्छी तरह से नहीं जानते उन्हें यह जानना जरूरी है कि इन अपराधियों का मुहल्ला, लाल दरवाजा और मुंगेर कोर्ट परिसर बिल्कुल आस पास हैं. इसका मतलब है जब जेल में इन कैदियों ने कोर्ट परिसर से भागने की योजना बनाई होगी तो ये भी तय कर लिया होगा कि कोर्ट से बाहर निकल कर कहां जाएंगे. कौन गाड़ी कहां इंतजार कर रही होगी आदि आदि. इसलिये जो कैदी फरार है उसे पकड़ना मुश्किल हो सकता है. अब तक वो मुंगेर छोड़कर किसी दूर के इलाके में पहुंच चुका होगा.

वैसे भी मुंगेर कोर्ट में गोलीबारी और बमबारी की ये कोई पहली घटना नहीं है. हम बचपन से सुनते आए हैं कि कोर्ट में गोली चली वो अपराधी मारा गया और वो अपराधी भाग गया. बिहार के लोग जानते हैं किस तरह से पेशी के दौरान पुलिस कस्टडी में कोर्ट के बाहर पुलिस पैसे लेकर खतरनाक अपराधियों को लोगों से मिलने दिया जाता है. इस दौरान लोग जेल के अंदर रहने वाले अपराधियों को पैसा और खाना देने दिया जाता है. लेकिन जब मामला मुंगेर के इस घटने में शामिल खुंखार अपराधियों का हो तो पुलिस को सावधानी बरतनी की जरूरत है. पुलिस के मुताबिक इस मामले की तहकीकात हो रही है. लेकिन यह साफ साफ लगता है कि इन अपराधियों के साथ साथ पुलिस की लापरवाही शामिल है. वैसे सरकारी काम है तो पुलिस तो तहकीकात करेगी, रिपोर्ट तैयार करेगी, फिर डिपार्टमेंट एक्शन लेगा फिर जाकर दोषी अधिकारियों पर कार्रवाई होगी. आज के रॉकेट ऐज में तब तक इस घटना को शायद कोई भी ना रखे.


नीतिश कुमार की सरकार आने से लोगों ने यह उम्मीद की थी कि अपराध और अपराधियों पर लगाम लगेगी लेकिन मुंगेर एक बार फिर गलतवजहों से सुर्खियों में आ गया है. सरकार को इस घटना से सचेत हो जाना चाहिए. इस घटना से जुड़े पुलिस अधिकारियों को सज़ा मिलनी चाहिए जिनकी लापरवाही से प्रशासन के मुंह पर कालिख पुती है.

Monday, August 31, 2009

अब और कितनों की जान जाएगी ? कब नींद खुलेगी ?


एक महीने में 30 से ज्यादा लोगों की जान चली गई. मलेरिया का कहर क्या टूटा बच्चे बूढे और जवान सब इसकी चपेट में आ गए. मुंगेर के मलेरिया अधिकारी बताते हैं कि एक खतरनाक मच्छर के काटने से लोगों की मौत हो रही है. अब तक 1500 लोग इसकी चपेट में आ चुके हैं. जो इलाज करने में देर करते हैं उनके बचने की उम्मीद नहीं है. अगर ये अधिकारी महोदय सिर्फ ये बताने के लिये नौकरी कर रहे हैं तो ये काम तो कोई भी कर सकता है. बदकिस्मती देखिए बीमारी फैलने के बाद हमारी व्यवस्था ऐसी लचर है कि मलेरिया को रोकने के लिये भी दिल्ली से डाक्टरों की टीम बुलाई जाती है. आठ डाक्टर आए. खड़गपुर हवेली के उन इलाकों में भी गए जहां ये बीमारी मौत का तांडव कर रही है. दिल्ली से आई टीम के सदस्यों के मुताबिक उनका काम इस बीमारी को लेकर एक रिपोर्ट दिल्ली में जमा करना है. सो ये रिपोर्ट भी जमा हो जाएगी.

मलेरिया कोई स्वाइन फ्लू तो है नहीं इसलिये इस पर किसी का ध्यान नहीं जाएगा. स्वाइन फ्लू को देखिए कितनी खतरनाक बीमारी है. मरने वालों की गिनती एक से शुरु हुई तो अब हजार को छूने जा रही है. वाजिब है, इसमें मरने वाले देश के बड़े बड़े शहरों के वे लोग हैं जिनके बटुए में विदेश जाने की ताकत है. वो हवाई सफर कर विदेश से लौटे तो साथ में ये बीमारी ले आए. फिर अपने दोस्तों से मिले. विदेश जाने की ताकत रखने वालों के दोस्त भी तो पावरफुल और पैसे वाले ही होते हैं. अब इन लोगों की जान जा रही है तो देश की मीडिया सुबह सबेरे रो रही है. लेकिन खड़गपुर हवेली के गांवों में मरने वाले तो गरीब लोग थे इसलिए इसके बारे में खबरें छोटे मोटे अखबारों में ही सिमट कर रह गई.
हमारे अधिकारी, सांसद और विधायक जी भी फ्लू से बचने के लिए नाक में रुमाल लगाए घूम रहे हैं. किसी ने इन गरीब जनता के साथ हमदर्दी दिखाने की भी जहमत नहीं उठाई.

मुंगेर और इसके आसपास के इलाके में मेडिकल सेवा के नाम पर हास्पिटल तो हैं लेकिन किसी महामारी से लड़ने की ताकत इस डिपार्टमेंट में नहीं है. खड़पुर हवेली में मरने वाले लोग इस बात के गवाह हैं कि हमारा स्वास्थ्य विभाग तो सर्दी बुखार से लड़ सकता है लेकिन उससे ज्यादा कुछ भी होता है तो पूरे डिपार्टमेंट के हाथ पैर फूलने लगते हैं. हास्पिटल है लेकिन ना तो सही ढंग के वार्ड ना है ना ही बिस्तर है. ये हाल तो मुंगेर के होस्पिटल का है. ब्लाक और गांवों की हालत के बारे में कुछ ना बोलना ही ठीक ही रहेगा. वैसे मुंगेर के लोगों के लिये ये जानना भी जरूरी है कि हमारा देश और खासकर इस देश के कई ऐसे शहर हैं जो दुनिया भर में मेडिकल टूरिज्म के डेस्टिनेशन के सबसे आगे हैं. मतलब यह कि इन शहरों के हास्पिटल में अमेरिका और यूरोप से लोग इलाज करवाने आते हैं. यहां दुनिया से सबसे अव्वल तकनीक मौजूद है और वो भी सस्ते दामों में. विदेशियों की जान बचाने के लिये हमारी सरकार इन हास्पिटलों को जमीन देती है साथ ही कई तरह की छूट. लेकिन पता नहीं क्यों मुंगेर और खड़गपुर जैसे इलाकों में रहने वाले गरीब जनता पर सरकार की नजर जाती है.
हम जिस भारत में रहते हैं यहां दो भारत है. एक जिसे गरीबी लाचारी और अंधेरे में सड़ने छोड़ दिया गया है दूसरा भारत वो है जहां अमीर और शक्तिशाली रहते हैं, जहां किसी को छींक भी आ जाए तो एक मिनट के अंदर ये अहसास कर दिया जाता है कि हमारी स्वास्थ्य व्यवस्था दुनिया के किसी भी दूसरे देश से कम नहीं है.

Thursday, August 20, 2009

डकरा नाला की मौत की दास्तां

video

NDTV की ये रिपोर्ट अपने आप में मुंगेर के सूरतेहाल को बयान कर रही है. मीडिया ने ये दिखा कर अपना काम कर दिया. अब मुंगेर के सांसद, विधायक, अधिकारियों और बिहार के मुख्यमंत्री जी को ये सोचना है कि डकरा नाला का अब क्या किया जाए. सौ करोड़ रुपये यूं ही बर्बाद हो गए. पता नहीं इस डकरा नाला के पैसे को किसने डकारा और ना जाने कितने लोग लखपति बन गए होंगे. सरकार की इस लापरवाही का जवाबदेही किसकी है? कानून तोड़ने वालों को तो सरकार सजा देती है लेकिन उसकी धज्जियां उड़ाने वाले नेताओं और अधिकारियों को कौन पकड़ेगा ?

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

पीर नफे की मजार, मुंगेर


ये 1840 में पीर नफे मजार का नजारा है. नीचे एक कच्ची सड़क जा रही है जो सोझी घाट की तरफ के गेट से आ रही है. यहां एक बस्ती है जिसमें राजा के महल में काम करने वाले लोगों का परिवार रहता था. पीछे एक टीले पर एक बड़ा सा घर नज़र आ रहा है जिसे अंग्रेजों ने कलेक्टर की कोठी में बदल दिया. ये आज भी ये डिस्ट्रिक्ट मजिस्ट्रेट का घर है. कोठी के बगल में एक तालाब भी नजर आ रहा है.. जो पोलो फील्ड की शक्ल में आज मौजूद है.

कष्टहरणी घाट 1840 में भी वैसा था जैसा अब है


मीरकासिम के जमाने में कष्टहरणी घाट का नजारा कुछ ऐसा था. आज भी हमें उसकी झलक मिलती है. फर्क सिर्फ इतना है कि बबुआ घाट और कष्टहरणी घाट के बीच में आज मुंगेर जेल है. पहले यहां राजा के मुख्यलोगों का घर हुआ करता था. उन्ही में से एक घर गोइनका परिवार के पास है. 1840 की इस पेंटिंग में भी चबूतरा नजर आ रहा है जिस पर बैठकर हम बातें किया करते हैं. आजकल तो ये चबूतरा भी टूटने लगा है. अब क्या किया जा सकता है सरकार और नेताओं को तो इसकी जरा भी फिक्र नहीं है.

गंगा के उस पार से कष्टहरणी घाट का नजारा


इस पेंटिग से लगता है कि कष्टहरणी घाट पहले मीर कासिम के सैनिक इस्तेमाल करते थे. गंगा के उस पार बैठ कर बनाए गए इस पेंटिग में कष्टहरणी घाट के साथ साथ कर्णचौड़ा भी नजर आ रहा है. जहां मीरकासिम का सेनापति रहा करता था. साथ ही दाहिने तरफ जमालपुर की पहाड़ियां नजर आ रही है.. जो आज भी उसी तरह मौजूद है. चुपचाप .. मुंगेर की बदहाली पर आंसू बहा रहा होगा शायद..

1840 में मुंगेर का सोझी घाट


ये नजारा है सोझी घाट का.. 1840 के दौरान सोझी घाट पर कोलकाता और पटना से व्यापारी माल लेकर आते थे. सोझी घाट में हमेशा नावों की भीड़ होती थी. उस वक्त कोई घाट नहीं था. उस वक्त भी शायद सोझी घाट के सामने टापू बना करता होगा जहां बैठकर इस पेंटिंग को बनाया गया है. सोझी घाट के पीछे नौलखा बिल्डिंग नज़र आ रहा है. जिसमें आजकल एनसीसी का आफिस है और सेंट जेवियर्स स्कूल है. ये याद रहे कि मुंगेर इस वक्त पूरे बंगाल की राजधानी हुआ करता था.

मुंगेर के किले का नार्थ गेट


ये है किले का साउथ गेट.. सोझी धाट की तरफ वाला.. मजार की तरफ वाला.. ये उस जमाने में कुछ इस तरह दिखता था.. आज इस आलिशान गेट की जगह छोटा सा गेट बना है. इन किले को देखकर तो यही लगता है कि ये अपने जमाने का सबसे सुरक्षित किला होगा.

मुंगेर का किला



1840 में मुंगेर का किला कुछ इस तरह से दिखता था. ये मुंगेर किला का मेन दरवाजा था. जो आजकल बस स्टैंड की तरफ है. 1934 के भुकंप में ये किला पूरी तरह से ध्वस्त हो गया और उसके बाद मुंगेर के लोगों ने चंदा करके किला को फिर से बनाया. अगर आज ये किला मौजूद होता तो मुंगेर शहर की शान होता.

इतिहास के आइने में मुंगेर का किला

मुंगेर में मिट रहा है मीर कासिम का इतिहास
जिस कर्ण और मीर कासिम के चलते मुंगेर इतिहास का धनी माना जाता है, आज उसका वजूद खतरे में है. इसे संजोने के प्रति किसी का ध्यान नहीं गया. मुंगेर के सांसद रहे डीपी यादव, जयप्रकाश नारायण यादव, ब्रह्मानंद मंडल आदि आए और चले गए. कुछ की तो भारत सरकार में बड़ी भूमिका भी रही. हमारे विधायक मोनाजिर हसन मंत्री भी है और नए सांसद अनंत सिंह जीत कर दिल्ली पहुंचे हैं. देखिए वो क्या करते हैं, लेकिन
इतना ज़रूर कहा जा सकता है कि पुरातत्व विभाग के जरिये मीर कासिम के सुरंग का राज लोगों के सामने उजागर करने पर किसी का ध्यान नहीं गया. ये सुरंग कष्टहरणी घाट के सामने पार्क में मौजूद हैं. ये सुरंग इतिहास का ऐसा पन्ना है जिनकी जानकारी बहुत कम लोगों को है. वो यदि पुरातत्व विभाग से इस ऐतिहासिक सुरंग की खुदाई करायी गयी होती, तो शायद यह सुरंग अबूझ पहेली नहीं होती. सुरंग कितना लंबा है और यह कहा निकला है, इसका पता नहीं है. सुरंग के निकट ही मीरकासिम के दो बच्चों की कब्र उनकी वीरता की कहानी कहा रहा है. लेकिन मुंगेर को लोग इन कहानियों को नहीं जानते हैं. इतिहास के पन्ने बताते हैं कि अंग्रेजों के भय से मीर कासिम ने इसी सुरंग से भाग कर अपनी जान बचायी थी. अंग्रेजी फौज ने उनके बेटे गुल व बेटी पनाग को घेर लिया. बताया जाता है दोनों बच्चे आत्मसमपर्ण करने के बजाय हाथ में तलवार ले अंग्रेजों से युद्ध करने निकल पड़े और शहीद हो गये. दोनों की कब्र आज भी यहां मौजूद है. मुंगेर में गंगा तट पर कष्टहरणी घाट पर स्थित इस सुरंग के बारे में लोग यह भी बताते हैं कि यह सुरंग गंगा नदी के नीचे से खोदी गयी है और भागलपुर में जाकर निकली है, लेकिन इसका कोई प्रमाण नहीं मिलता है. सुरंग के द्वार पर मजबूत दीवार है, जो इस बात की गवाही कर रही है कि समूचे सुरंग को ईट के दीवार पर रोका गया है.
सुरंग की बात जो है, वह तो है ही मीर कासिम के ऐतिहासिक किला की दीवारें भी ध्वस्त होने लगी हैं. इतिहास के प्रति मुंगेर के अधिकारियों और नेताओं को इतनी जागरूकता नहीं है कि वो किले का द्वार जहां से कभी राजा महाराजा गुजरा करते थे वहां आज खैनी की दुकानें लगी हैं. फर्जी और नकली दवाई बेचने वालों का शोरुम बन चुका है. किले की दीवार पर सटे पोस्टर्स शहर के प्रति हमारी भावना प्रदर्शित करते हैं. ऐतिहासिक धरोहर पर मार्निंग शो को पोस्टर्स लगे रहते हैं. जनप्रतिनिधि से लेकर प्रशासन तक के लोग इसे आते-जाते देखते हैं, लेकिन किसी ने टूटे दीवार के जीणोद्धार के लिए कोई प्रयास नहीं किया. वर्ष 1934 में आये भूकंप में मीरकासिम का किला ढह गया था, लेकिन उस समय के लोग अपने इतिहास को बचाने के प्रति इतने जागरुक थे कि चंदा इकट्ठा कर जैसा हो सका वैसा किला बना दिया. उस वक्त हम गुलाम थे, हम गरीब थे इसलिए जो नया किला बना वो पुराने किले की झलक मात्र भी नहीं है. उम्मीद तो ये करनी चाहिए कि हमारे किसी नेता ये कहें कि किले को फिर से उसी तरह से बनाया जाएगा जिस तरह का वो 1934 के भुकंप से पहले का था. लेकिन अफसोस, इसके ठीक विपरीत किला के ध्वस्त हुए दीवार की मरम्मत कराने पर कोई ध्यान नहीं दे रहा. पिछले कुछ दशकों में जहां दो केंद्रीय मंत्रियों ने अपना इतिहास सजोने का प्रयास नहीं किया, वहीं तीन बार सांसद रहे ब्रह्मानंद मंडल ने भी इस दिशा में कोई पहल नहीं किया. मुंगेर की जनता उन्हें उनका स्थान दिखाती है तो वो गलत नहीं करती. आज के इंटरनेट युग की कहानी ये है कि मैंने इतिहास में झांकने की कोशिश की तो ऐसी तस्वीर मिली जिससे मेरा दिमाग हिल गया. मुझे दो सौ साल पहले की पेंटिग मिली. मीर कासिम के किले की पेंटिंग. इसे किसी अंग्रेज ने पेंट किया था. ये पेंटिंग 1840 के आसपास की है. मैने उसे पेंट करने की कोशिश की है. शायद आपलोगों को पसंद आए. इन पेंटिंग को देखकर लगता है कि उस जमाने में हमारा मुंगेर कितना शानदार हुआ करता था. मुंगेर का किला देख कर सीना फूल जाता है कि यह किसी जमाने में दिल्ली के लाल किला से भी शानदार हुआ करता था. सोझी घाट से नौलखा बिल्डिंग का नजारा भी देखने लायक है. इस नौलखे बिल्डिंग में आज एनसीसी का आफिस और सेंट जेवियर स्कूल चल रहा है. बताया जाता है कि यहां मीरकासिम का मंत्री रहा करता था.
अब तो बस यही उम्मीद है कि मुंगेर के लोग ही कुछ ऐसा करें कि पुरानी रौनक वापस मिल जाए.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

यादें

अपनी यादों को यहां आप लिख सकते हैं

History of Monghyr

The territory included within the district of Munger (famously Monghyr) formed penAdd Imaget of the Madhya-desa as “Midland” of the first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Mod-Giri a place mentioned in the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamralipta. In the Digvijaya Parva of Mahabharata, we find the mention of Moda-Giri, Which seems similar to Moda-Giri. Digvijaya Parva suggests that it was a monarchical state during early times. A passage in the Sabha-Parva describes Bhima’s conquest in Eastern India and says that after defeating Karna, king of Anga, he fought battle at Modagiri and killed its chief. It was also known as Maudal after Maudgalya, a disciple of Buddha, who converted a rich merchant of this place into Buddhism. Buchanan says that it was the hermitage of Mudgala Muni and this tradition of Mudgal Risi still persists. Munger is called “Modagiri” in the Monghyr copperplate of Devapala. The derivation of the name Munger (Monghyr) has found the subject of much speculation. Tradition arcribes the foundation of the town to Chandragupta, after whom it was called Guptagars a name which has been found inscribed on a rock at Kastaharni Ghat at the north-western corner of the present fort. It is insisted that Mudgalrisi lived there. Tradition ascribes the composition of various suktar of the 10th Mavdala of the Rigveda to Rishi Mudgal and his clan. However, General Cunnigham had strong suspicicion when he connects this original name with Mons as Mundas, who occupied this part before the advent of the Aryans. Again Mr. C.E.A. oldham, ICS, a farmer collector suggests the possibility of Munigiha, ie , the abode of the Muni, without any specification which later corrupted to Mungir and later became Munger.
At the dawn of history, the present site of the town was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital Champa near Bhagalpur. According to Pargiter, Anga comprises the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munger commissionary. The Anga dominion at one time included Magadha and the Shanti-Parva refers to an Anga king who sacrificed at Mount Vishnupada. In the epic period Modagiri finds mention as a separate state. The success of the Anga did not last long and about the middle of the sixth century B.C. Bimlisara of Magadha is said to have killed Brahmadatta, the last independent ruler of ancient Anga. Hence the Anga became an integral part of the growing empire of Magadh. As epigraphic evidence of the Gupta period suggests that Munger was under the Guptas. To the reign of Buddhagupta (447-495 A.D) belongs a copper plate of A.D. 488-9 originally found at Mandapura in the district.
HIUEN TSIANG’S ACCOUNT
However the first historical account of the district appears in the Travels of HIUEN TSIANG, who visited this area towards the close of the first half of the seventh century A.D. Hiuen Tsiang observed “The country is regularly cultivated and rich in produce flowers and fruit being abundant, the climate is agreeable and manners of the people simple and honest. There are 10 Buddhist monartries with about 4,000 priests and few Brahminical temples occupied by various sectaries”. The pilgrim’s “I-lan-ha-po-fa-to”country is identified as this area. He had to pass through thick forest and strange mountains into the country of Hiranayaparvat. The capital Hiranayaparvat, lay, on the southern bank of Ganga, and closed to it stood mount Hiranya, which “belched masses of smoke and vapour that obscured the light of the sun and the moon”. The position of this hill is determined from its proximity to the Ganga, to be Munger and though no smoke now comes from any peak, the numerous hot springs in the hills point to famous volcanic action. These hot spring are also mentioned in Hiuen Tsiang’s Account. General Cunningham identified the hot springs being those of Bhimbandh and its offshoots. Other authorities refer it as Uren in present Lakhisarai District.
Unfortunately, there is a historical gap of almost two centuries when we find its fresh mention in the Munger copper plate of Devapala discovered at Munger about 1780. We learn from this copper plate about Dharampala (c.770-810) who preceded far beyond Kanauj in his military campaigns. It refers to a campaign of Dharampala along the foot of the Himalayas. Tripartite struggle between the Palas, Rashhtrakutas and Gurjar-Pratihars for subermacy over Kanauj was a dominant factor in the history of northern India. We find mention of Pala king Gopal, his son Dharampala & Devapala. Munger prominence is also corroborated by the Nawlagarth inscriptions of Begusarai. The Bhagalpur plate of Narayan pala, executed at Munger, shows their policy of religious tolerance and there patronage to the worshipers of Shiva & Sakti cults.
Till the advent of the Turkish rule in India. Munger was under sway of the Karnataka dynasty of Mithila. However Bakhiyar Khilji took possession of Territory any of Munger in AD1225. Thus Munger in possession of the Khilji ruler Gyasuddin. After a tussle and aftermath a peace treaty Munger came under the control of Sultan of Bengal between 1301-1322, which is corroborated by the Lakhisarai Inscription. Munger came under the possession of Muhammad Bin Tugular who annexed Munger to Delhi for some time. In 1342 the whole of north India witnessed the turmoil and Late Spasmodic Illyas Shah of Bangal taking advantage of the opportunities established his sway over Bihar. An interesting description of the Bengal sultan still exists in Lakhisarai. Inscription bearing a date corresponding to 1297 which mentions Rakmuddin Kalawao (c1296-1302) and a Governor round Ferai Hitagim. During thus conflict between the Tugulaqs of Delhi and Bangal Sultan some portions of then Munger came under the possession of the Sharqils of Jaunpur.
Some inscriptions found in Munger speaks of the conflict between the Jampur rules and the Bangal Sultan which resulted in farmer’s defeat and finally resulted in peace. Here we came across the name of prince Danyal who held the post of Governor of Bihar. It was prince Danyal who had repaired the fortification of Munger and built in 1497 the voult over the shrine of Shah Nafah. This is also known by the insemination but up by Danyal on the eastern wall of the Dargah just within the southern gate of the fort.
Nasrat Shah succeeded Hussain Shah in Bengal in 1590. His brother-in-law Makhdun Alam took possession of Munger Fort and entrusted its responsibility to one of his general named Kutub Khan who made Munger the head quarters of Bihar army of the rulers of Gaur. Bahar in his memoir mention that when he invaded Bihar, Munger was under the change of a prince. After the Battle of ghagra, Babar sent envoys to Nusarat Shah later Kutub Khan was defeated and killed by Shur Shah. In 1534 again a powerful army in command of Ibrahim Khan moved out to Munger, The battles took place in the narrow plains of Surajgarha in which Ibrahim Khan was routed and slain and Sher Shah firmly placed himself to Kingshlip. Thus during the Humayun-Sher Shah conflict Munger pardoner strategic gamed. During the subsequent war between Sher Shah and Humayun Munger was the seat of battle between, the Afghan and the Empires in which Sher Shah captured Dilawar Khan son of Daulat Khan Lodi. Mughal rule was substituted for Afghan rule. During Akbar’s period when the great Bengal military revolts started. Munger was for some time the headquarters of Akbar’s officers in their expeditions against the rebels. It was in this year that Raja Todarmal took possession of Munger and tried to deal with three refractory powerful semi-independent Zamindars of Akbar’s time viz. Raja Gajapati of Hajipur, Raja Puran Mal of Ghidhaur and Raja Sangram Singh of Kharagpur. The last two belonged to the district of Munger. Gajapati was totally ruined. After the final occupation of Bihar, Raja Man Singh was appointed as the Governor and on the basis of Akbarnama. It can be said that Raja Man Singh succeeded well in his administration. Kharagpur at that time was a great principality extending from the south of Munger to the south of Bhagalpur and Santhal Paragans. Sangram Singh remained loyal to the Mughal rule till Akbar’s death in 1605. But the accession of Jahangir and the rebellion of Prince Khusru led him to make a final attempt to recover his independence. He collected his forces, which, according to Jhangir’s memoirs, consisted of about four thousand horses and a large army of foot soldiers.
The Mughal army under Jahangir’s Kuli Khan Lala Beg, Governor of Bihar, valiantly opposed him and a gun shot in 1606 killed Sangram Singh. Sangram Singh’s son succeeded in gaining favour of Jahangir but had to wait till 1615 when, on his conversion to Islam, he was allowed to return to Bihar. He known in history as Rozafzun (ie. Daily growing in power). He remained faithful to the Emperor and in 1628 when Jahangir died he was a commander of 1500-foot soldiers and 700 horses. When Shahjahan became the Emperor, Rozafzun entered into active Mughal services and accompanied Mahabat Khan in his Kabul expedition. He was a brave soldier and had to his credit his participation in the Siege of Parendah and was promoted to the higher ranks and became the commander of 2000-foot soldiers and 1000 horses.He died in 1635 and was succeeded by his son Raja Bihruz who was also a great fighter and held the rank of 700-foot soldier and 700 horses, under Shahjahan. He extended his territory, got many grants specially the Chakla Midnapur, in which he built a town and named it Kharagpur. A ruined palace built by him is there; adjoining it is a three-domed mosque. There is still a marble slab, which gives the date of building in 1656 A.D. But this brave Kharagpur ruler died in 1656. During the civil (1657-58) amongst the sons of Shahjahan, Shah Shuja, the second son of the Emperor was governor of Bengal. On hearing of the serious illness of his father in 1657 he raised the standard of revolts and claimed the throne. Though his capital was at Rajmahal, Munger the centre from which he direct his preparations and here he returned in 1658 after his defeat. In June 1658, Auranzeb made an attempt to conciliate Shuja by granting him the province of Bihar in addition to Bengal. Munger came into great prominence during this period of the civil war. Prof. Quanungo writes that after the March of Imperial Army Shuja wrote to Dara asking for the grant of Munger, which formed the part of Dara’s province of Bihar. Dara was also prepared to give away the Fort of Munger on the condition that the present fortress was dismantled and Shuja’s son did not reside there. We also get a reference of Murad’s letter in which the designs of Dara to deprive Shuja of Munger has been hinted at. Shuja took shelter at Munger to face the Imperialists. In course of this conflict Dara was compelled to send urgent letters to his son to make peace with his uncle. As a result of this treaty of 1685 Munger was added to Shuja’s viceroyalty but he was not allowed to reside there. In 1659 Daud Khan took charge of the province of Bihar. Mir. Jumla and Prince Muhammad pursued Shuja up to Munger. Shuja was forced by the treachery of Raja Bihruz Khan of Kharagpur and Khaza Kamal of Birbhum to abandon Munger in 1659. It was in this connection that Raja Bihruz was made In charge of the whole area of Munger. We also find a mention of a Aevastative famine during the reign of the Governor, Ibrahim Khan which continued from 1670-72. The Dutch traveller, De Graafe, who travelled from Munger to Patna in November 1670 gives a graphic picture of the horrible sccnes. Marshall also mentions very interesting details about Munger. He inspected Shah Suja place built on the west side of the Fort. He describes it, “as a very large house where the king (Suja) lived, walled next to the river, for about one and half Kos with bricks and stones, with a wall fifteen yards high”. He entered the first gate but was stopped at the other within which he saw two elephants carved in stone and very large and handsomely”. The inside palace was so strictly guarded that two Dutch men De Graafe and Oasterhoff were imprisoned for their antiquarian interest as they were taken as spies. They were released after seven weeks of imprisonment in November , 1670 by paying a fine of one thousand rupees to the Nawab of Patna. Marshall found a great garden and, at the south end, he saw several thatched and many tombs and mosques.
He further writes “the town stands upon an ascent, the river bank by it being 8 or 10 yards high, the brick wall by the river side at the south end of Munger was about 5 yards high and 20 yards long with a little tower at each end and each wall is a fortification to place the gun on it. Towards the close of the 18th Century we find that Munger was merely station of “Power Magazine” established there….” For most vivid lightning often about Munger attracted by the iron ore which abounds in the neighboring hills and if it fell upon the magazine, the while Fort could certainly be destroyed by the explosion”. We find mention in the travel account of R.Heber in his book “Narrative of Journey Through the Upper Province of India (1827)” that Munger was noted for its good climate and Warren Hastings also speaks of the delightful change of atmosphere from that of Bengal. Heber further wrote “Munger presents an imposing appeardance…. The Fort is now dismantled. Its gates, its battlements etc. are all of Asiatic architecture and very much similar to the Khitairagorod of Moscow.” Miss Emily Eden was also much struck by the inland tables and boxes and expressed surprise on such curious workmanship (Miss Eden-Up the Country quoted in Munger Gazetteer 1960). The remark of Miss Eden is also attested in the writing of Fanny Parkes who wrote “Among the articles manufactured here the black vases for flowers turned into while wood and lacquered whilst in the Lathe with scaling wax are pretty”. Joseph Hooker also speaks highly of Munger, “By far the prettiest town, Munger was celebrated for its iton manufacture, especially of muskets, in which respect it is the Burmingham of Bengal”.
When we come down to the early Mughal period we get a few references to the district in the famous book “Ain-I-Akbari” prepared by Abul Fazl. According to it Sarkar Munger consisted of 31 mahals or Parganas, paying a revenue of 10,96,25 981 dams (40 dams equal to One Akbar Shahi rupee). It is also mentioned that Sarkar Munger furnished 2150 horses and 50,000 foot soldiers. Raja Man Singh who is said to have reconqucred Bengal and Orissa had for some time Munger as his residenoc.During the reign of Aurangzed we find mention of Munger inconnection with the death and burial at Munger of the poet Mulla Mohammad Saiyed, who wrote under the nom-de-plume of Ashraf. The poet Ashraf stood in high favour with prince Azim-Us-Shah, Aurangzeb’s grand son, who happened to be the Governor of Bihar. The poet Ashraf had also been for a long time the teacher of Zebunissa Begum, Aurangzeb’s daughter who was herself a poetcss of rupute. It 1704 while on his way from Bengal to Mecca, the poet died at Munger where his tomb is still pointed out. Nicholas Graafe, a Dutch physician who visited in the beginning of the century was struck with admiration at the sight of its white wall, towers and minarets. But by 1745 when Mustafa Khan, a rebellious General of Alivardi Khan advanced against it in his march northwards the fort was a ruinous fortification which the Governor and his little garrison tried to put up some Defence but failed miserably.
The besieger got upon the wall and scized the fort though the leader was killed by a stone that fell upon him. Mustafa Khan, however, following the custom of those days, had music played to celebrate his success, he also took some guns and ammunition from the fort and after a halt for a few days marched off towards Patna. During the period of the disintegration of Mughal Empire Munger had to witness new changes. Bihar came to be joined to the Suba of Bengal, which had practically become independent of Delhi. Alivardi, who was the Fauzdar of Rajmahal had now become the District Governor of Munger. Munger was politically and strategically so important that it did not escape even the Maratha expendition. The second Maratha invasion under Raghujee Bhonsla occurred in 1743.
Balaji Maratha entered into Bihar and advancing through Tekari, Gaya, Manpur, Bihar and Munger. It is also mentioned that during the 4th Maratha invasion in 1744 Raghuji passed through the hills of Kharagpur. When British force was pursuing Jean Law, the French adventurer and partisan of siraj-ud-duala, who was flying northwards after the Battle of Plassey, Major Coote reached Munger late at night on 20th July, 1757 and requisitioned a number of boats which the Governor of Munger supplied. But Munger Fort was in such a good condition that he was not allowed to enter the Fort and when he approached the walls he found that garrison was ready to fire. Coote wisely resumed his march without any attempt to enter the Fort. Nearly three years after in the spring of 1760 the army of Emperor Shah Alam marched out of the District when he was being pursued by Major Caillaud and miran. The Emperor had been defeated by Caillaud and Miran at sirpur on the 22nd February, 1760. This time Johan Stables, who had succeeded Caillaud was given charge of Munger. It was he who directed to attack the Kharagpur Raja who had openly defied the authority of the new Nawab, Kasim Ali Khan.
The modern history of Munger came again into Prominence in 1762 when Kasim Ali Khan made it his capital instead of Murshidbad in Bengal. The new Nawab removed his treasure, his elephants and horses and even the gold and silver decorations of the Imam Bara from his old capital. He favored General Gurghin (Gregory) Khan, an Armenian of Ispahan, re-organized the army and had it drilled and equipped after English model. He also established and arsenal for the manufacture of fire-arms and it is from this time that Munger can trace back its importance for the manufacture of guns. Even today that glorious tradition is being carried on by hundreds of families who specialize in the manufacture of guns.
Two days a week he sat in a public hall of audience and personally dispensed justice. He listened Patiently to the complaints and grievances of everyone and gave his impartial order. The Nawab, indeed, was a terror both to his enemies and to wring doors. He also honored learning and the learned and welcomed scholars and savants to his court and he surely earned the respect and admiration of both friends and foes alike. Unfortunately, however, destiny did not help him and Mir Kasim Ali soon came into confrontation with the English.

MIR KASIM AND HIS CONFICT WITH THE ENGLISH
The first quarrel appears to have been caused by the tactless conduct of Mr. Ellis, who was in incharge of an English factory at patna. Mr. Ellis had received a vague report that two English deserters were concealed at Munger. A long dispute followed and it was finally compromised by Mr. Ironsides, the Town Major of Calcutta , who conducted the search of the Fort with the due permission of the Nawab. No deserters were found inside the Fort, the only European in the place being an old French invalid. In April, 1762 Warren Hastings was sent from Calcutta to arrange the terms between the Nawab and Mr.Ellis. The Nawab received him well but Ellis refused to meet Warren Hastings and stayed in his house at Singhia, 15 miles away from Munger. Beside this personal rancor, serious trade disputes arose between the Nawab and East India Company. The East India Company had been enjoying exemption frm heavy duty transit levied on inland trade. After the battle of Blassey the European servants of the Company began to trade extensivdy on their own account and to claim a similar exemption for all goods passing under company’s flag and covered by Dastak or certificate signed by the Governor or any agent of the factory. Great abuses followed when the English in some cases lent their names to Indians for a consideration and the latter used the same Dastak over and over again or even began forging them.
Warren Hastings in 1762 says that every boat he met on the river bore the company’s flag and became aware of the oppression of the people by the Gumashtas and the Company’s servant. Mir Kasim bitterly complained that his source of revenue had been taken away from him and that his authority was completely disregarded. Eventually in Octuber, 1762, Mr. Vansittart, the Governor left Calcutta in order to try and conclude a settlement between the two parties. He found the Nawab of Munger smarting under the injuries and insults he had received. But at length it was agreed that servants of the company should be allowed to carry on the inland private trade, on payment of a fixed duty of 9% on all goods- a rate much below that paid by the other merchants. The dastak also remained with a new provision that it should also be countersigned by the nawab’s collector. Mir Kasim agreed to these terms but, of course, very unwillingly. Sair-ul-Mutakharin gives a detailed account of the visit of Vansittart. The Nawab advanced six miles to meet vansittart and arrange for his residence in the house which Gurghin Khan had crected on hill of Sitakund (Pir Pahar).
Vansittart returned to Calcutta in January 1763 after a week long stay at Munger but he was sorry to find that the agreement concluded with the Nawab has been repudiated. The Nawab, however, had honestly sent the copies of the Governor’s agreement to all of his officrs for its immediate implementation. The result was that English goods then in transit, were stopped and duty caimed upon them. The English council reacted sharply and wanted that the English dastak should pass free of duty. The Nawab on the other hand protested at this breach of faith and passed orders abolishing all transit duty and thereby, throwing open the whole inland trade free from any custom duty. The English regarded this as an act of hostility and preparations for war began but English decided first to send a deputation headed by Messrs. Amyatt and Hay to arrange fresh tersm with the Nawab.Mr. Ellis was also informed of this development and was warned not to commit any act lof aggression even if the mission failed and Amyatt and Hay were well out of the Nawab’s power.
The members of the mission reached Munger on the 14th may, 1763 and opened up negotiations, but it was soon found that they were undocked. The Nawab who was offended at the rough and over bearing manner in which he was addressed by the English linguist and refused to speak to him. At subsequent interviews also the Nawab tried to avenge the English insult and refused to come to any terms. The Envoys were kept under strict supervision and when some of the party wished to ride out from Munger they found their way barred by the Nawab’s soldiers with lighted matches ready to fire. Just at this tenses moment English cargo boats for Calcutta were detained at Munger and 500 Muskets intended for the factory at Patna were found out hidden under the cargo. The Nawab, naturally, became suspicious of the English move which might have been to seize the fort and the city at Patna. He wanted , therefore, a thorough check-up by his own troops otherwise he would declare war. In the mean time he permitted Mr. Amyatt and others of the party to leave for Calcutta, but detained Mr. Hay and Mr. Gulson as hostages for the safety lof his officers who had been arrested by the English.
As regardes the final rupture between the English and Bengal Nawab it was precipitated by the action of Mr. Ellis who believed that war was in any case inevitable, and seized the city of Patna on hearing the news that the detachment was advancing from Munger to reinforce the Nawab’s garrison. The Nawab also retaliated promptly, reinforcements were hurried up and the Fort quickly recaptured. This news of the success gave Kasim Ali the keenest delight. Even though it was mid-night, he immediately ordered music to strike and awakened the whole town of Munger. At day-break the doors of the public halls were thrown open and every one hastened to offer him congratulations. He , now, proclaimed the outbreak of war and directed his officers to put the English to sword wherever they were found. In pursuance lof this general order Mr. Amayat was killed at Murshidabad and the factory at Cossim (Kasim) Bazar was stormed. The survivorsw surrendered and were sent to Munger to join their unfortunate companions from patna.
The British force under Major Adams quickly advanced against the nawab and defeated his troops at Suti. On Hearing of his defeat, he sent his Begums and children to the fort at Rohtas and set out himself accompanied by Gurgin khan to join his army that was now concentrated on the banks of the Udhua Nullah near Rajmahal. Before leaving Munger, however, he pur to death a number of his prisoners including Raja Ram Narayan, till lately Deputy Governor of Bihar, who was thrown down into the river below the fort with a pitcher filled with sand bound to his neck. Gurgin Khan not satisfied with this butchery also urged the Nawab to kill his English prisoners but this the Nawab refused to do. Jagat set Mahtab Rai and Sarup Chand, two rich bankers of Murshidabad who had been brought from that place by Mir Kasim Ali as they were believed to favour the British cause also appears to have escaped. Though as the tradition says they were also drowned at the same time. This story is, however, contradicted by the author of Sair-UI-Mutakharin who says that they were hacked to pieces at Barth. The exact location of the tower of castle of Munger from where Jagat Seth and others were thrown down has not yet been located.
Before the Nawab could join his army at Udhua Nullah he heard of a second decisive defeat that he had sustained and thereafter returned to Munger. He stayed there only for two or three days and marched to Patna with his prisoners like Mr. Hay, Mr. Ellis and some others. On the way Mr. Kasim halted on the bank of Rahua Nullah, a small stream near Lakhisarai. It was here that Gurgin Khan met his death and was cut down by some of his own troopers who were demanding arrears of their pay. A scene of wild confusion followed. Makar, another Armenian General, fired off some guns, the thought that the English were upon them and fled in terror, Mir Kasim himself flying on an elephant. There was great confusion in the army because of this false alarm but Mir Kasim marched on the next day to Patna.
In the meantime the British army moved on rapidly towards Munger and at this time Munger was placed under the command of Arab Ali Khan, who was a creature of Gurgin Khan. On the first of October 1763 the main body of the army arrived on batteries that had been thrown up and were immediately opened. For two days heavy fire was maintained but in the evening the Governor capitulated and surrendered himself and his garrison. The English at once set to work to repair the breaches and improve the defences.
The Fort was left under the command of Captain John White who was further directed to raise locally another battalion of sepoys. This news of the capture of Munger infuriated the Nawab who as soon as he heard of it gave order that his English prisoners at Patna should be put to death. This order was carried out by the infamous Samru and is known in history, as the ‘Massacre of Patna’.
There years later in 1766 there was a mutiny of the European officers of Bengal army because of the reduction of “bhatta” which was an extra monthly sum to cover the increased expenses when the soldiers were on active military duty. After the battle of Plassey Mir Jafar Khan had granted an extra-allowance, called “double bhatta” which had continued during the role of Mir Kasim also. But the Directors of the companies now passed order that this allowance should be abolished except for the grant of half-bhatta to the troops stationed at Patna and Munger. This curtailment was bitterly resented by the army officers and on the first of May, 1766 a memorandum to this effect was signed by officers of the first brigade stationed at Munger under Sir Robert Fletcher who transmitted it to Lord Clive at Murshidabad.
Clive lost no time and proceeded to Munger in person by forced marches and in the mean time sent forward some officers to deal with the situation as well as they could. When arrived at Munger late at night on the 12th May, the army heard too much of drums beating and going further to Robert Fletcher’s quarter they found the European regiment drinking, singing and beating drums. Next morning two of them went to Kharagpur and returned with two battalions to Munger. But we learn that on 14th the European battalion broke out in open mutiny and Captain Smith seized the saluting batteries which were situated upon hillock. The hillock was known as Karn Choura hill. Captain Smith gained possession of the hill and was successful in suppressing the rebellion. In short, Munger was recaptured by the prompt and brave action of Caption Smith and sir Robert Fletcher.
Clive hadd already reached Munger and he held a parade of troops. He explained the circumstances under which the “bhatta” had been withdrawn and he further applauded the loyal conduct of the sepoys and condemned the conspiracy of some officers. They were further threatened that the ring leaders would get the severest penalties under Martial Law. After his address, the brigade gave their hearty cheers and marched off quietly to the barracks and the lines. Thus, the rebellion of the British officers at Munger was successfully suppressed. For some time John Maccabe was a Deputy Commissioner, Government of Munger before 1789.
The subsequent history of the district is uneventful with the extension of the British dominions, the town of Munger ceased to be an important frontier post. There was no arsenal, no regular garrison was kept up and no attempt was made to bring the fortification up-to-date. Munger, however, was still important for its fine situation and salubrious air and was used as a sanatorium for the British troops. So great a resort that it was the journey up the Ganga followed by a stay was regarded of as healthy as a sea voyage. We find that a trip to Munger was prescribed for the wife of Warren Hastings when she was in ill health and in 1781 when Warren Hastings was on his way to meet Chait Singh at Banaras he left his wife here for the benefit of her health. But during the early part of the 19th century Munger was degraded to a lunatic asylum for sepoys where there was also a depot for army clothing and it became an invalid station for British soldiers.

Monday, June 22, 2009

MUNGER

Munger is a modern town with historical roots. Previously named Monghyr, this town has many historical sites. During the reign of Nawab Mir Qasim the capital of Bengal had been shifted from Murshidabad to Munger away from British influence. Mir Qasim had been installed by the British East India Company but eventually rebelled against their endless demands, circa 1760-64. Whilst in Munger, Mir Qasim raised an independent army to counter the British. Mir Qasim built a fort, which remains an important tourist destination, beside the Ganges river[citation needed].
Monghyr was a town and district of
British India, in the Bhagalpur division of Bengal.

The town is on the right bank of the Ganges, and has a railway station, with steam ferry service to the railway on the opposite bank of the river. In 1195 Monghyr, a fortress of great natural strength, appears to have been taken by Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, the first Moslem conqueror of Bengal. Henceforth it is often mentioned by the Mohammedan chroniclers as a place of military importance, and was frequently chosen as the seat of the local government. After 1590, when Akbar established his supremacy over the Afghan chiefs of Bengal, Monghyr was long the headquarters of his general, Todar Mal; and it also figures prominently during the rebellion of Shāh Shujā against his brother, Aurangzeb. In more recent times Nawab Mir Kasim, in his war with the English, selected it as his residence and the centre of his military preparations.
Munger is the place where
Karna resided in antiquity. In the Mahabharata, Karna is often referred to as "Angraj" (The King of Ang). In ancient times, Munger was known as Ang[citation needed]. The name is also cemented by the fact that the local language spoken in Munger is known as "Angika". Based on the Mahabharata's evidence, the kingdom of the Angas roughly corresponded to the region of Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar and parts of Bengal, and later extended to include most of Bengal. According to the Mahabharata, Duryodhana had named Karna the King of Anga.
Sabhaparava of Mahabharata (II.44.9) mentions
Anga and Vanga as forming one country. The Katha-Sarit-Sagara also attests that Vitankapur, a city of Anga, was situated on the shores of the sea. Thus the boundaries of Anga may have extended to the sea in the east.
The first railway from
Howrah ran through Monghyr: this East Indian Railway line opened to Monghyr in 1861. After the disastrous earthquake of 1934 the town was rebuilt to give it a modern look, but in keeping with its history. Munger has also been made famous by "The Bihar School of Yoga" set up by the revered [Swami Nityanand Saraswati].